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New York cannabis retail opportunities take shape after opt-out deadline passes




Although roughly half of New York’s municipal governments opted out of permitting recreational cannabis stores before a Dec. 31 deadline, those opt-outs aren’t set in stone.

That means new adult-use retail opportunities could still open up in the nation’s fourth-largest state by population, even as aspiring adult-use marijuana retailers start making plans for communities that have already opted in.

The Dec. 31 opt-out deadline for retail and cannabis consumption sites followed former New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s signing of an adult-use bill into law last March.

Still, the exact rules surrounding recreational marijuana retail in New York remain unknown.

The “lack of clarity on what the regulations will be for (recreational) dispensaries has been a big driving point in municipalities deciding to opt out,” said Heather Trela, director of operations and a fellow at the Rockefeller Institute of Government, a public policy think tank.

Trela oversees the institute’s online tracker for municipal cannabis opt-outs in New York and studies the state’s opt-out landscape.

Cannabis businesses approaching municipalities to get the ball rolling might wish to:

  • Connect with opt-in communities as a collaborative partner that will listen to local concerns.
  • Be prepared to offer a positive contribution to the community, such as charitable work.
  • Approach municipalities that have currently opted out with care, if at all.

A map showing percentage of municipalities by county that have agreed to allow recreational cannabis stores.Opt-outs can still opt back in

At least 48.8% of New York’s municipal governments opted out of permitting adult-use cannabis retail by the deadline, with at least 55.5% opting out of consumption sites, according to the Rockefeller Institute’s tracker as of Jan. 12.

Roughly 39.8% had definitively opted in.

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The institute’s tracker is still being updated to include municipalities where the opt-in status is unknown.

The tracker excludes New York City, although all five of its boroughs have reportedly opted in.

While opt-out municipalities in New York can opt back into permitting retail or consumption sites at any time, once opted in, they can’t opt out again.

“I think being more conservative – small ‘c’ conservative – municipalities opted out, for a large part because they were just unsure of what they were opting into,” Trela said.

“With more information, they may change their minds.”

New York municipalities and recreational marijuana stores

A tally of New York municipalities and their decisions on allowing recreational marijuana stores as of Jan. 12, 2022. Data provided by the Rockefeller Institute of Government.

Municipality County Allow Dispensaries
Albany (City) Albany Yes
Altamont (Village) Albany No
Berne (Town) Albany Yes
Bethlehem (Town) Albany No
Coeymans (Town) Albany Yes
Cohoes (City) Albany Yes
Colonie (Town) Albany Yes
Colonie (Village) Albany Yes
Green Island (Town) Albany Yes
Guilderland (Town) Albany No
Knox (Town) Albany Yes
Menands (Village) Albany Yes
New Scotland (Town) Albany Yes
Ravena (Village) Albany Yes
Rensselaerville (Town) Albany No
Voorheesville (Village) Albany No
Watervliet (City) Albany No
Westerlo (Town) Albany No
Alfred (Town) Allegany Yes
Alfred (Village) Allegany Yes
Allen (Town) Allegany Yes
Alma (Town) Allegany No
Almond (Town) Allegany Yes
Almond (Village) Allegany Yes
Amity (Town) Allegany No
Andover (Town) Allegany No
Andover (Village) Allegany Yes
Angelica (Town) Allegany No
Angelica (Village) Allegany No
Belfast (Town) Allegany No
Belmont (Town) Allegany No
Bolivar (Town) Allegany Yes
Bolivar (Village) Allegany No
Burns (Town) Allegany Yes
Canaseraga (Village) Allegany Yes
Caneadea (Town) Allegany No
Centerville (Town) Allegany Yes
Clarksville (Town) Allegany No data
Cuba (Town) Allegany Yes
Cuba (Village) Allegany Yes
Friendship (Town) Allegany No
Genesee (Town) Allegany Yes
Granger (Town) Allegany No
Grove (Town) Allegany Yes
Hume (Town) Allegany No
Independence (Town) Allegany No
New Hudson (Town) Allegany No data
Richburg (Village) Allegany Yes
Rushford (Town) Allegany No
Scio (Town) Allegany Yes
Ward (Town) Allegany Yes
Wellsville (Town) Allegany Yes
Wellsville (Village) Allegany No
West Almond (Town) Allegany No data
Willing (Town) Allegany No
Writ (Town) Allegany Yes
Barker (Town) Broome No
Binghamton (City) Broome Yes
Binghamton (Town) Broome Yes
Chenango (Town) Broome Yes
Colesville (Town) Broome Yes
Conklin (Town) Broome Yes
Deposit (Village) Broome Yes
Dickinson (Town) Broome Yes
Endicott (Village) Broome Yes
Fenton (Town) Broome No
Johnson City (Village) Broome Yes
Kirkwood (Town) Broome No
Lisle (Town) Broome Yes
Lisle (Village) Broome Yes
Maine (Town) Broome Yes
Nanticoke (Town) Broome No
Port Dickinson (Village) Broome No data
Sanford (Town) Broome Yes
Triangle (Town) Broome Yes
Union (Town) Broome Yes
Vestal (Town) Broome No data
Whitney Point (Village) Broome Yes
Windsor (Town) Broome No
Windsor (Village) Broome Yes
Allegany (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Allegany (Village) Cattaraugus Yes
Ashford (Town) Cattaraugus No
Carrollton (Town) Cattaraugus No
Cattaraugus (Village) Cattaraugus Yes
Coldspring (Town) Cattaraugus No
Conewango (Town) Cattaraugus No
Dayton (Town) Cattaraugus No
Delevan (Village) Cattaraugus No
East Otto (Town) Cattaraugus No
Ellicottville (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Ellicottville (Village) Cattaraugus Yes
Farmersville (Town) Cattaraugus No
Franklinville (Town) Cattaraugus No
Franklinville (Village) Cattaraugus Yes
Freedom (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Gowanda (Village) Cattaraugus No
Great Valley (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Hinsdale (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Humphrey (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Ischua (Town) Cattaraugus No data
Leon (Town) Cattaraugus No data
Little Valley (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Little Valley (Village) Cattaraugus Yes
Lyndon (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Machias (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Mansfield (Town) Cattaraugus No
Napoli (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
New Albion (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Olean (City) Cattaraugus Yes
Olean (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Otto (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Perrysburg (Town) Cattaraugus No
Persia (Town) Cattaraugus No
Portville (Town) Cattaraugus No
Portville (Village) Cattaraugus No
Randolph (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Red House (Town) Cattaraugus No data
Salamanca (City) Cattaraugus Yes
Salamanca (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
South Dayton (Village) Cattaraugus No
South Valley (Town) Cattaraugus No
Yorkshire (Town) Cattaraugus Yes
Auburn (City) Cayuga Yes
Aurelius (Town) Cayuga Yes
Aurora (Village) Cayuga No
Brutus (Town) Cayuga No
Cato (Town) Cayuga No
Cato (Village) Cayuga No
Cayuga (Village) Cayuga Yes
Conquest (Town) Cayuga No
Fair Haven (Village) Cayuga No
Fleming (Town) Cayuga No
Genoa (Town) Cayuga No
Ira (Town) Cayuga No
Ledyard (Town) Cayuga No
Locke (Town) Cayuga No
Mentz (Town) Cayuga No
Montezuma (Town) Cayuga Yes
Moravia (Town) Cayuga Yes
Moravia (Village) Cayuga No
Niles (Town) Cayuga No
Owasco (Town) Cayuga Yes
Port Byron (Village) Cayuga No
Scipio (Town) Cayuga No
Sempronius (Town) Cayuga Yes
Sennett (Town) Cayuga No
Springport (Town) Cayuga No
Sterling (Town) Cayuga Yes
Summerhill (Town) Cayuga No
Throop (Town) Cayuga Yes
Union Springs (Village) Cayuga No
Venice (Town) Cayuga No
Victory (Town) Cayuga Yes
Weedsport (Village) Cayuga No
Arkwright (Town) Chautauqua Yes
Bemus Point (Village) Chautauqua No
Brocton (Village) Chautauqua No
Busti (Town) Chautauqua No
Carroll (Town) Chautauqua No
Cassadaga (Village) Chautauqua No
Celoron (Village) Chautauqua No
Charlotte (Town) Chautauqua No
Chautauqua (Town) Chautauqua No
Cherry Creek (Town) Chautauqua No
Clymer (Town) Chautauqua No
Dunkirk (City) Chautauqua Yes
Dunkirk (Town) Chautauqua Yes
Ellery (Town) Chautauqua No
Ellicott (Town) Chautauqua No
Ellington (Town) Chautauqua No
Falconer (Village) Chautauqua No
Fredonia (Village) Chautauqua Yes
French Creek (Town) Chautauqua No
Gerry (Town) Chautauqua No
Hanover (Town) Chautauqua No
Harmony (Town) Chautauqua No
Jamestown (City) Chautauqua Yes
Kiantone (Town) Chautauqua No
Lakewood (Village) Chautauqua No
Mayville (Village) Chautauqua No
Mina (Town) Chautauqua Yes
North Harmony (Town) Chautauqua No
Panama (Village) Chautauqua No
Poland (Town) Chautauqua No
Pomfret (Town) Chautauqua Yes
Portland (Town) Chautauqua No
Ripley (Town) Chautauqua No
Sheridan (Town) Chautauqua No
Sherman (Town) Chautauqua No
Sherman (Village) Chautauqua Yes
Silver Creek (Village) Chautauqua No
Sinclairville (Village) Chautauqua No
Stockton (Town) Chautauqua No
Villenova (Town) Chautauqua No
Westfield (Town) Chautauqua Yes
Westfield (Village) Chautauqua Yes
Ashland (Town) Chemung No
Baldwin (Town) Chemung No
Big Flats (Town) Chemung No
Catlin (Town) Chemung No
Chemung (Town) Chemung No
Elmira (City) Chemung Yes
Elmira (Town) Chemung No
Elmira Heights (Village) Chemung No
Erin (Town) Chemung No
Horseheads (Town) Chemung Yes
Horseheads (Village) Chemung Yes
Southport (Town) Chemung No
Van Etten (Town) Chemung No
Veteran (Town) Chemung No
Wellsburg (Village) Chemung Yes
Afton (Town) Chenango No
Afton (Village) Chenango No
Bainbridge (Town) Chenango Yes
Baindbridge (Village) Chenango Yes
Columbus (Town) Chenango No data
Coventry (Town) Chenango No data
Earville (Village) Chenango Yes
German (Town) Chenango Yes
Greene (Town) Chenango No
Greene (Village) Chenango No
Guilford (Town) Chenango No
Lincklaen (Town) Chenango No data
McDonough (Town) Chenango No data
New Berlin (Town) Chenango No
New Berlin (Village) Chenango No
North Norwich (Town) Chenango Yes
Norwich (City) Chenango Yes
Norwich (Town) Chenango No
Otselic (Town) Chenango No
Oxford (Town) Chenango No
Oxford (Village) Chenango Yes
Pharsalia (Town) Chenango No data
Pitcher (Town) Chenango No data
Plymouth (Town) Chenango Yes
Preston (Town) Chenango Yes
Sherburne (Town) Chenango No
Sherburne (Village) Chenango No
Smithville (Town) Chenango No
Smyrna (Town) Chenango No
Smyrna (Village) Chenango No data
Altona (Town) Clinton Yes
AuSable (Town) Clinton Yes
Beekmantown (Town) Clinton No
Black Brook (Town) Clinton Yes
Champlain (Town) Clinton Yes
Champlain (Village) Clinton Yes
Chazy (Town) Clinton No
Dannemora (Town) Clinton Yes
Dannemora (Village) Clinton Yes
Ellenburg (Town) Clinton Yes
Mooers (Town) Clinton No data
Peru (Town) Clinton Yes
Plattsburgh (City) Clinton Yes
Plattsburgh (Town) Clinton Yes
Rouses Point (Village) Clinton No
Saranac (Town) Clinton No data
Schuyler Falls (Town) Clinton No data
Ancram (Town) Columbia Yes
Austerlitz (Town) Columbia Yes
Canaan (Town) Columbia No
Chatham (Town) Columbia No
Chatham (Village) Columbia No
Claverack (Town) Columbia No data
Clermont (Town) Columbia No
Copake (Town) Columbia Yes
Gallatin (Town) Columbia Yes
Germantown (Town) Columbia Yes
Ghent (Town) Columbia Yes
Greenport (Town) Columbia Yes
Hillsdale (Town) Columbia Yes
Hudson (City) Columbia Yes
Kinderhook (Town) Columbia Yes
Kinderhook (Village) Columbia No
Livingston (Town) Columbia No
New Lebanon (Town) Columbia Yes
Philmont (Village) Columbia No data
Stockport (Town) Columbia No data
Stuyvesant (Town) Columbia Yes
Taghkanic (Town) Columbia Yes
Valatie (Village) Columbia Yes
Cincinnatus (Town) Cortland No
Cortland (City) Cortland Yes
Cortlandville (Town) Cortland No
Cuyler (Town) Cortland No
Freetown (Town) Cortland Yes
Harford (Town) Cortland No data
Homer (Town) Cortland Yes
Homer (Village) Cortland Yes
Lapeer (Town) Cortland No
Marathon (Town) Cortland No
Marathon (Village) Cortland No
McGraw (Village) Cortland Yes
Preble (Town) Cortland No
Scott (Town) Cortland Yes
Solon (Town) Cortland Yes
Taylor (Town) Cortland No data
Truxton (Town) Cortland No data
Virgil (Town) Cortland No
Willet (Town) Cortland No
Andes (Town) Delaware No
Bovina (Town) Delaware No
Colchester (Town) Delaware Yes
Davenport (Town) Delaware Yes
Delhi (Town) Delaware Yes
Delhi (Village) Delaware No data
Deposit (Town) Delaware Yes
Deposit (Village) Delaware Yes
Fleischmanns (Village) Delaware Yes
Franklin (Town) Delaware No
Franklin (Village) Delaware No
Hamden (Town) Delaware No
Hancock (Village) Delaware Yes
Harpersfield (Town) Delaware Yes
Hobart (Village) Delaware No
Kortright (Town) Delaware Yes
Margaretville (Village) Delaware Yes
Masonville (Town) Delaware No
Meredith (Town) Delaware No data
Middletown (Town) Delaware No
Roxbury (Town) Delaware No
Sidney (Town) Delaware Yes
Sidney (Village) Delaware No
Stamford (Town) Delaware No
Stamford (Village) Delaware No
Tompkins (Town) Delaware Yes
Walton (Town) Delaware No
Walton (Village) Delaware Yes
Amenia (Town) Dutchess No
Beacon (City) Dutchess Yes
Beekman (Town) Dutchess No
Clinton (Town) Dutchess Yes
Dover (Town) Dutchess No
East Fishkill (Town) Dutchess No
Fishkill (Town) Dutchess Yes
Fishkill (Village) Dutchess Yes
Hyde Park (Town) Dutchess No
La Grange (Town) Dutchess No
Milan (Town) Dutchess No
Millbrook (Village) Dutchess No
Millerton (Village) Dutchess Yes
North East (Town) Dutchess No
Pawling (Town) Dutchess No
Pawling (Village) Dutchess No
Pine Plains (Town) Dutchess Yes
Pleasant Valley (Town) Dutchess No
Poughkeepsie (City) Dutchess Yes
Poughkeepsie (Town) Dutchess Yes
Red Hook (Town) Dutchess Yes
Red Hook (Village) Dutchess Yes
Rhinebeck (Town) Dutchess No
Rhinebeck (Village) Dutchess No
Stanford (Town) Dutchess No
Tivoli (Village) Dutchess No
Union Vale (Town) Dutchess No
Wappinger (Town) Dutchess No
Wappingers Falls (Village) Dutchess Yes
Washington (Town) Dutchess No
Akron (Village) Erie No
Alden (Town) Erie No
Alden (Village) Erie No
Amherst (Town) Erie Yes
Angola (Village) Erie Yes
Aurora (Town) Erie No
Blasdell (Village) Erie Yes
Boston (Town) Erie Yes
Brant (Town) Erie No
Buffalo (City) Erie Yes
Cheektowaga (Town) Erie Yes
Clarence (Town) Erie No
Colden (Town) Erie No
Collins (Town) Erie No
Concord (Town) Erie Yes
Depew (Village) Erie Yes
East Aurora (Village) Erie Yes
Eden (Town) Erie Yes
Elma (Town) Erie No
Evans (Town) Erie Yes
Farnham (Village) Erie Yes
Gowanda (Village) Erie No
Grand Island (Town) Erie Yes
Hamburg (Town) Erie Yes
Hamburg (Village) Erie No
Holland (Town) Erie No
Kenmore (Village) Erie Yes
Lackawanna (City) Erie Yes
Lancaster (Town) Erie No
Lancaster (Village) Erie Yes
Marilla (Town) Erie No
Newstead (Town) Erie No
North Collins (Town) Erie No
North Collins (Village) Erie Yes
Orchard Park (Town) Erie Yes
Orchard Park (Village) Erie No
Sardinia (Town) Erie No
Sloan (Village) Erie Yes
Springville (Village) Erie Yes
Tonawanda (City) Erie Yes
Tonawanda (Town) Erie Yes
Wales (Town) Erie No
West Seneca (Town) Erie Yes
Williamsville (Village) Erie No
Chesterfield (Town) Essex No
Crown Point (Town) Essex Yes
Elizabethtown (Town) Essex No
Essex (Town) Essex No
Jay (Town) Essex No data
Keene (Town) Essex No
Lake Placid (Village) Essex No
Lewis (Town) Essex No
Minerva (Town) Essex Yes
Moriah (Town) Essex No data
Newcomb (Town) Essex No
North Elba (Town) Essex No
North Hudson (Town) Essex Yes
Saranac Lake (Village) Essex Yes
Schroon (Town) Essex No
St. Armand (Town) Essex No
Ticonderoga (Town) Essex No
Westport (Town) Essex Yes
Willsboro (Town) Essex Yes
Wilmington (Town) Essex No
Bangor (Town) Franklin Yes
Bellmont (Town) Franklin Yes
Bombay (Town) Franklin Yes
Brandon (Town) Franklin No data
Brighton (Town) Franklin Yes
Brushton (Village) Franklin Yes
Burke (Town) Franklin Yes
Burke (Village) Franklin Yes
Chateaugay (Town) Franklin Yes
Chateaugay (Village) Franklin Yes
Constable (Town) Franklin No
Dickinson (Town) Franklin Yes
Duane (Town) Franklin No
Fort Covington (Town) Franklin No
Franklin (Town) Franklin No
Harrietstown (Town) Franklin No
Malone (Town) Franklin No data
Malone (Village) Franklin No
Moira (Town) Franklin No data
Santa Clara (Town) Franklin No
Saranac Lake (Village) Franklin Yes
Tupper Lake (Town) Franklin Yes
Tupper Lake (Village) Franklin Yes
Waverly (Town) Franklin Yes
Westville (Town) Franklin Yes
Bleecker (Town) Fulton No
Broadalbin (Town) Fulton Yes
Caroga (Town) Fulton Yes
Dolgeville (Village) Fulton No
Ephratah (Town) Fulton No data
Gloversville (City) Fulton Yes
Johnstown (City) Fulton No data
Johnstown (Town) Fulton Yes
Mayfield (Town) Fulton Yes
Mayfield (Village) Fulton Yes
Northampton (Town) Fulton No
Northville (Village) Fulton Yes
Oppenheim (Town) Fulton Yes
Perth (Town) Fulton No data
Stratford (Town) Fulton No data
Alabama (Town) Genesee No
Alexander (Town) Genesee No
Alexander (Village) Genesee No
Batavia (City) Genesee Yes
Batavia (Town) Genesee No
Bergen (Town) Genesee No
Bergen (Village) Genesee No
Bethany (Town) Genesee No
Byron (Town) Genesee No
Corfu (Village) Genesee Yes
Darien (Town) Genesee Yes
Elba (Town) Genesee No
Elba (Village) Genesee No
Le Roy (Town) Genesee No
Le Roy (Village) Genesee No
Oakfield (Town) Genesee No
Oakfield (Village) Genesee No
Pavilion (Town) Genesee Yes
Pembroke (Town) Genesee Yes
Stafford (Town) Genesee No
Ashland (Town) Greene No
Athens (Town) Greene Yes
Athens (Village) Greene Yes
Cairo (Town) Greene No
Catskill (Town) Greene Yes
Catskill (Village) Greene Yes
Coxsackie (Town) Greene Yes
Coxsackie (Village) Greene Yes
Durham (Town) Greene No
Greenville (Town) Greene No
Halcott (Town) Greene No
Hunter (Town) Greene No
Hunter (Village) Greene No
Jewett (Town) Greene No
Lexington (Town) Greene Yes
New Baltimore (Town) Greene No
Prattsville (Town) Greene No
Tannersville (Village) Greene Yes
Windham (Town) Greene No
Arietta (Town) Hamilton No
Benson (Town) Hamilton No
Hope (Town) Hamilton No data
Indian Lake (Town) Hamilton Yes
Inlet (Town) Hamilton No
Lake Pleasant (Town) Hamilton No
Long Lake (Town) Hamilton Yes
Morehouse (Town) Hamilton No
Speculator (Village) Hamilton No
Wells (Town) Hamilton No
Coldbrook (Village) Herkimer No
Columbia (Town) Herkimer No data
Danube (Town) Herkimer No data
Fairfield (Town) Herkimer No data
Frankfort (Town) Herkimer Yes
Frankfort (Village) Herkimer Yes
German Flatts (Town) Herkimer No
Herkimer (Town) Herkimer Yes
Herkimer (Village) Herkimer Yes
Ilion (Village) Herkimer No
Litchfield (Town) Herkimer No
Little Falls (City) Herkimer No data
Little Falls (Town) Herkimer No data
Manheim (Town) Herkimer Yes
Middleville (Village) Herkimer No
Mohawk (Village) Herkimer No
Newport (Town) Herkimer No data
Norway (Town) Herkimer No data
Ohio (Town) Herkimer No data
Poland (Village) Herkimer No data
Russia (Town) Herkimer No
Salisbury (Town) Herkimer Yes
Schuyler (Town) Herkimer No
Stark (Town) Herkimer No data
Warren (Town) Herkimer Yes
Webb (Town) Herkimer Yes
West Winfield (Village) Herkimer Yes
Winfield (Town) Herkimer Yes
Adams (Town) Jefferson No
Adams (Village) Jefferson No
Alexandria (Town) Jefferson No
Alexandria Bay (Village) Jefferson No
Antwerp (Town) Jefferson No
Antwerp (Village) Jefferson Yes
Black River (Village) Jefferson No
Brownville (Town) Jefferson No
Brownville (Village) Jefferson No
Cape Vincent (Town) Jefferson No
Cape Vincent (Village) Jefferson No
Carthage (Village) Jefferson Yes
Champion (Town) Jefferson No
Chaumont (Village) Jefferson No
Clayton (Town) Jefferson No
Clayton (Village) Jefferson No
Deferiet (Village) Jefferson No
Dexter (Village) Jefferson No
Ellisburg (Town) Jefferson No
Ellisburg (Village) Jefferson Yes
Evans Mills (Village) Jefferson Yes
Glen Park (Village) Jefferson Yes
Henderson (Town) Jefferson No
Hounsfield (Town) Jefferson No
Le Ray (Town) Jefferson No
Lorraine (Town) Jefferson No data
Lyme (Town) Jefferson No
Mannsville (Village) Jefferson Yes
Orleans (Town) Jefferson Yes
Pamelia (Town) Jefferson Yes
Philadelphia (Town) Jefferson No data
Philadelphia (Village) Jefferson No
Rodman (Town) Jefferson No
Rutland (Town) Jefferson Yes
Sackets Harbor (Village) Jefferson Yes
Theresa (Town) Jefferson No
Theresa (Village) Jefferson Yes
Watertown (City) Jefferson No
Watertown (Town) Jefferson No
West Carthage (Village) Jefferson Yes
Wilna (Town) Jefferson No
Worth (Town) Jefferson No
Castorland (Village) Lewis No
Constableville (Village) Lewis No
Copenhagen (Village) Lewis No
Croghan (Town) Lewis No
Croghan (Village) Lewis No
Denmark (Town) Lewis No
Diana (Town) Lewis No
Greig (Town) Lewis No
Harrisburg (Town) Lewis No
Lewis (Town) Lewis No
Leyden (Town) Lewis Yes
Lowville (Town) Lewis No
Lowville (Village) Lewis No
Lyons Falls (Village) Lewis Yes
Lyonsdale (Town) Lewis No data
Martinsburg (Town) Lewis No
Montague (Town) Lewis No
New Bremen (Town) Lewis No
Osceola (Town) Lewis No
Pinckney (Town) Lewis No
Port Leyden (Village) Lewis No
Turin (Town) Lewis No
Turin (Village) Lewis No
Watson (Town) Lewis No
West Turin (Town) Lewis No
Avon (Town) Livingston Yes
Avon (Village) Livingston Yes
Caledonia (Town) Livingston Yes
Caledonia (Village) Livingston Yes
Conesus (Town) Livingston No
Dansville (Village) Livingston No
Geneseo (Town) Livingston No
Geneseo (Village) Livingston No
Groveland (Town) Livingston Yes
Leicester (Town) Livingston No data
Lima (Town) Livingston No data
Lima (Village) Livingston Yes
Livonia (Town) Livingston Yes
Livonia (Village) Livingston No data
Mount Morris (Town) Livingston Yes
Mount Morris (Village) Livingston No data
North Dansville (Town) Livingston No
Nunda (Town) Livingston No data
Nunda (Village) Livingston No
Ossian (Town) Livingston No
Portage (Town) Livingston No data
Sparta (Town) Livingston No data
Springwater (Town) Livingston No data
West Sparta (Town) Livingston Yes
York (Town) Livingston Yes
Brookfield (Town) Madison No
Canastota (Village) Madison No
Cazenovia (Town) Madison No
Cazenovia (Village) Madison No
Chittenango (Village) Madison No
DeRuyter (Town) Madison No
DeRuyter (Village) Madison No
Eaton (Town) Madison Yes
Fenner (Town) Madison No
Georgetown (Town) Madison No
Hamilton (Town) Madison Yes
Hamilton (Village) Madison Yes
Lebanon (Town) Madison Yes
Lenox (Town) Madison No
Lincoln (Town) Madison Yes
Madison (Town) Madison Yes
Madison (Village) Madison No data
Morrisville (Village) Madison Yes
Munnsville (Village) Madison No
Nelson (Town) Madison No
Oneida (City) Madison No
Smithfield (Town) Madison No
Stockbridge (Town) Madison No data
Sullivan (Town) Madison No
Wampsville (Village) Madison No
Brighton (Town) Monroe Yes
Brockport (Village) Monroe Yes
Chili (Town) Monroe No
Churchville (Village) Monroe No
Clarkson (Town) Monroe No
East Rochester (Town) Monroe No data
East Rochester (Village) Monroe No data
Fairport (Village) Monroe Yes
Gates (Town) Monroe No
Greece (Town) Monroe No
Hamlin (Town) Monroe No
Henrietta (Town) Monroe Yes
Hilton (Village) Monroe No
Honeoye Falls (Village) Monroe Yes
Irondequoit (Town) Monroe Yes
Mendon (Town) Monroe No
Ogden (Town) Monroe No
Parma (Town) Monroe No
Penfield (Town) Monroe Yes
Perinton (Town) Monroe No
Pittsford (Town) Monroe No
Pittsford (Village) Monroe No
Riga (Town) Monroe No
Rochester (City) Monroe Yes
Rush (Town) Monroe Yes
Scottsville (Village) Monroe No
Spencerport (Village) Monroe Yes
Sweden (Town) Monroe No
Webster (Town) Monroe No
Webster (Village) Monroe No
Wheatland (Town) Monroe Yes
Ames (Village) Montgomery No data
Amsterdam (City) Montgomery No data
Amsterdam (Town) Montgomery Yes
Canajoharie (Town) Montgomery Yes
Canajoharie (Village) Montgomery No data
Charleston (Town) Montgomery No data
Florida (Town) Montgomery No data
Fonda (Village) Montgomery No
Fort Johnson (Village) Montgomery No
Fort Plain (Village) Montgomery No
Fultonville (Village) Montgomery No data
Glen (Town) Montgomery No
Hagaman (Village) Montgomery No data
Minden (Town) Montgomery No data
Mohawk (Town) Montgomery No data
Nelliston (Village) Montgomery Yes
Palatine (Town) Montgomery No data
Palatine Bridge (Village) Montgomery Yes
Root (Town) Montgomery No data
St. Johnsville (Town) Montgomery No data
St. Johnsville (Village) Montgomery Yes
Atlantic Beach (Village) Nassau No
Baxter Estates (Village) Nassau No
Bayville (Village) Nassau No
Bellerose (Village) Nassau No
Brookville (Village) Nassau No
Cedarhurst (Village) Nassau No
Centre Island (Village) Nassau No
Cove Neck (Village) Nassau No
East Hills (Village) Nassau No
East Rockaway (Village) Nassau No
East Williston (Village) Nassau No
Farmingdale (Village) Nassau No
Floral Park (Village) Nassau No
Flower Hill (Village) Nassau No
Freeport (Village) Nassau No
Garden City (Village) Nassau No
Glen Cove (City) Nassau No
Great Neck (Village) Nassau No
Great Neck Estates (Village) Nassau No
Great Neck Plaza (Village) Nassau No
Hempstead (Town) Nassau No
Hempstead (Village) Nassau No
Hewlett Bay Park (Village) Nassau No
Hewlett Harbor (Village) Nassau No data
Hewlett Neck (Village) Nassau No
Island Park (Village) Nassau No
Kensington (Village) Nassau No
Kings Point (Village) Nassau Yes
Lake Success (Village) Nassau No
Lattingtown (Village) Nassau No
Laurel Hollow (Village) Nassau No
Lawrence (Village) Nassau No
Long Beach (City) Nassau No
Lynbrook (Village) Nassau No
Malverne (Village) Nassau No
Manorhaven (Village) Nassau No
Massapequa Park (Village) Nassau No
Matinecock (Village) Nassau No
Mill Neck (Village) Nassau No data
Mineola (Village)  Nassau No
Munsey Park (Village) Nassau No
Muttontown (Village) Nassau No
New Hyde Park (Village) Nassau No
North Hempstead (Town) Nassau No
North Hills (Village) Nassau No
Old Brookville (Village) Nassau No
Old Westbury (Village) Nassau No
Oyster Bay (Town) Nassau No
Oyster Bay Cove (Village) Nassau Yes
Plandome (Village) Nassau No data
Plandome Heights (Village) Nassau No
Plandome Manor (Village) Nassau No
Port Washington North (Village) Nassau No
Rockville Centre (Village) Nassau No
Roslyn (Village) Nassau No
Roslyn Estates (Village) Nassau No
Roslyn Harbor (Village) Nassau No
Russell Gardens (Village) Nassau No
Saddle Rock (Village) Nassau Yes
Sands Point (Village) Nassau No
Sea Cliff (Village) Nassau No
South Floral Park (Village) Nassau No
Stewart Manor (Village) Nassau No
Thomaston (Village) Nassau No
Upper Brookville (Village) Nassau No
Valley Stream (Village) Nassau No
Westbury (Village) Nassau No
Williston Park (Village) Nassau No
Woodsburgh (Village) Nassau No
Barker (Village) Niagara Yes
Cambria (Town) Niagara No
Hartland (Town) Niagara No
Lewiston (Town) Niagara Yes
Lewiston (Village) Niagara Yes
Lockport (City) Niagara Yes
Lockport (Town) Niagara Yes
Middleport (Village) Niagara No
Newfane (Town) Niagara Yes
Niagara (Town) Niagara No
Niagara Falls (City) Niagara Yes
North Tonawanda (City) Niagara Yes
Pendleton (Town) Niagara No
Porter (Town) Niagara Yes
Royalton (Town) Niagara No
Somerset (Town) Niagara No
Wheatfield (Town) Niagara Yes
Wilson (Town) Niagara No
Wilson (Village) Niagara Yes
Youngstown (Village) Niagara No
Annsville (Town) Oneida Yes
Augusta (Town) Oneida Yes
Ava (Town) Oneida No data
Boonville (Town) Oneida No
Boonville (Village) Oneida Yes
Bridgewater (Town) Oneida No
Camden (Town) Oneida Yes
Camden (Village) Oneida No
Clayville (Village) Oneida No
Clinton (Village) Oneida No
Deerfield (Town) Oneida Yes
Florence (Town) Oneida No
Floyd (Town) Oneida Yes
Forestport (Town) Oneida Yes
Holland Patent (Village) Oneida Yes
Kirkland (Town) Oneida Yes
Lee (Town) Oneida No
Marcy (Town) Oneida Yes
Marshall (Town) Oneida Yes
New Hartford (Town) Oneida No data
New Hartford (Village) Oneida No data
New York Mills (Village)  Oneida No data
Oneida Castle (Village) Oneida No
Oriskany (Village) Oneida Yes
Oriskany Falls (Village)  Oneida Yes
Paris (Town) Oneida Yes
Remsen (Town) Oneida No data
Remsen (Village) Oneida Yes
Rome (City) Oneida No data
Sangerfield (Town) Oneida Yes
Sherrill (City) Oneida No
Steuben (Town) Oneida No data
Sylvan Beach (Village) Oneida Yes
Trenton (Town) Oneida Yes
Utica (City) Oneida Yes
Vernon (Town) Oneida No
Vernon (Village) Oneida No data
Verona (Town) Oneida Yes
Vienna (Town) Oneida Yes
Waterville (Village) Oneida No
Western (Town) Oneida Yes
Westmoreland (Town) Oneida No
Whitesboro (Village) Oneida Yes
Whitestown (Town) Oneida Yes
Yorkville (Village) Oneida Yes
Baldwinsville (Village)  Onondaga No
Camillus (Town) Onondaga No
Camillus (Village) Onondaga No
Cicero (Town) Onondaga No
Clay (Town) Onondaga No data
DeWitt (Town) Onondaga Yes
East Syracuse (Village) Onondaga Yes
Elbridge (Town) Onondaga No
Elbridge (Village) Onondaga No
Fabius (Town) Onondaga No
Fabius (Village) Onondaga No data
Fayetteville (Village) Onondaga No
Geddes (Town) Onondaga Yes
Jordan (Village) Onondaga No
LaFayette (Town) Onondaga No
Liverpool (Village) Onondaga No
Lysander (Town) Onondaga Yes
Manlius (Town) Onondaga Yes
Manlius (Village) Onondaga No
Marcellus (Town) Onondaga Yes
Marcellus (Village) Onondaga No
Minoa (Village) Onondaga No
North Syracuse (Village)  Onondaga Yes
Onondaga (Town) Onondaga Yes
Otisco (Town) Onondaga No
Pompey (Town) Onondaga No
Salina (Town) Onondaga Yes
Skaneateles (Town) Onondaga Yes
Skaneateles (Village) Onondaga No
Solvay (Village) Onondaga No
Spafford (Town) Onondaga Yes
Syracuse (City) Onondaga Yes
Tully (Town) Onondaga Yes
Tully (Village) Onondaga No
Van Buren (Town) Onondaga Yes
Bloomfield (Village) Ontario Yes
Bristol (Town) Ontario No
Canadice (Town) Ontario Yes
Canandaigua (City) Ontario Yes
Canandaigua (Town) Ontario No
Clifton Springs (Village) Ontario Yes
East Bloomfield (Town) Ontario No
Farmington (Town) Ontario No
Geneva (City) Ontario Yes
Geneva (Town) Ontario Yes
Gorham (Town) Ontario No
Hopewell (Town) Ontario No
Manchester (Town) Ontario No
Manchester (Village) Ontario Yes
Naples (Town) Ontario No
Naples (Village) Ontario Yes
Phelps (Town) Ontario No data
Phelps (Village) Ontario Yes
Richmond (Town) Ontario No
Rushville (Village) Ontario Yes
Seneca (Town) Ontario No
Shortsville (Village) Ontario No
South Bristol (Town) Ontario No
Victor (Town) Ontario Yes
Victor (Village) Ontario Yes
West Bloomfield (Town) Ontario No
Blooming Grove (Town) Orange No
Chester (Town) Orange No
Chester (Village) Orange No
Cornwall (Town) Orange No
Cornwall-on-Hudson (Village) Orange No
Crawford (Town) Orange No
Deerpark (Town) Orange No
Florida (Village)  Orange No
Goshen (Town) Orange No
Goshen (Village) Orange No
Greenville (Town) Orange No
Greenwood Lake (Village) Orange No
Hamptonburgh (Town) Orange No
Harriman (Village)  Orange No
Highland Falls (Village) Orange No
Highlands (Town) Orange No
Kiryas Joel (Village) Orange No data
Maybrook (Village) Orange No
Middletown (City) Orange No
Minisink (Town) Orange No
Monroe (Town) Orange No
Monroe (Village) Orange No
Montgomery (Town) Orange No
Montgomery (Village) Orange No data
Mount Hope (Town) Orange No
New Windsor (Town) Orange No
Newburgh (City) Orange Yes
Newburgh (Town) Orange Yes
Otisville (Village) Orange No
Palm Tree (Town) Orange No data
Port Jervis (City) Orange Yes
South Blooming Grove (Village) Orange No data
Tuxedo (Town) Orange Yes
Tuxedo Park (Village) Orange No
Unionville (Village) Orange No
Walden (Village) Orange No
Wallkill (Town) Orange No
Warwick (Town) Orange Yes
Warwick (Village) Orange No
Washingtonville (Village) Orange No
Wawayanda (Town) Orange Yes
Woodbury (Town) Orange No data
Woodbury (Village) Orange Yes
Albion (Town) Orleans No
Albion (Village)  Orleans Yes
Barre (Town) Orleans No
Carlton (Town) Orleans No
Clarendon (Town) Orleans No
Gaines (Town) Orleans No
Holley (Village) Orleans No
Kendall (Town) Orleans No data
Lyndonville (Village) Orleans No
Medina (Village)  Orleans Yes
Murray (Town) Orleans No
Ridgeway (Town) Orleans No
Shelby (Town) Orleans No
Yates (Town) Orleans No
Albion (Town) Oswego No
Amboy (Town) Oswego No
Boylston (Town) Oswego No data
Central Square (Village) Oswego No
Cleveland (Village) Oswego No
Constantia (Town) Oswego No
Fulton (City) Oswego Yes
Granby (Town) Oswego Yes
Hannibal (Town) Oswego Yes
Hannibal (Village) Oswego Yes
Hastings (Town) Oswego Yes
Lacona (Village) Oswego No
Mexico (Town) Oswego No
Mexico (Village) Oswego No
Minetto (Town) Oswego Yes
New Haven (Town) Oswego No
Orwell (Town) Oswego No
Oswego (City) Oswego Yes
Oswego (Town) Oswego No
Palermo (Town) Oswego No
Parish (Town) Oswego Yes
Parish (Village) Oswego Yes
Phoenix (Village) Oswego Yes
Pulaski (Village) Oswego Yes
Redfield (Town) Oswego No
Richland (Town) Oswego No
Sandy Creek (Town) Oswego Yes
Sandy Creek (Village) Oswego No
Schroeppel (Town) Oswego Yes
Scriba (Town) Oswego Yes
Volney (Town) Oswego No
West Monroe (Town) Oswego Yes
Williamstown (Town) Oswego No
Burlington (Town) Otsego No data
Butternuts (Town) Otsego Yes
Cherry Valley (Town) Otsego Yes
Cherry Valley (Village) Otsego Yes
Cooperstown (Village)  Otsego Yes
Decatur (Town) Otsego Yes
Edmeston (Town) Otsego No
Exeter (Town) Otsego Yes
Gilbertsville (Village) Otsego No data
Hartwick (Town) Otsego Yes
Laurens (Town) Otsego Yes
Laurens (Village) Otsego Yes
Maryland (Town) Otsego Yes
Middlefield (Town) Otsego Yes
Milford (Town) Otsego Yes
Milford (Village) Otsego No data
Morris (Town) Otsego Yes
Morris (Village) Otsego No data
New Lisbon (Town) Otsego Yes
Oneonta (City) Otsego Yes
Oneonta (Town) Otsego Yes
Otego (Town) Otsego Yes
Otego (Village) Otsego Yes
Otsego (Town) Otsego No
Pittsfield (Town) Otsego Yes
Plainfield (Town) Otsego Yes
Richfield (Town) Otsego No
Richfield Springs (Village) Otsego Yes
Roseboom (Town) Otsego Yes
Springfield (Town) Otsego Yes
Unadilla (Town) Otsego Yes
Unadilla (Village) Otsego Yes
Westford (Town) Otsego No
Worcester (Town) Otsego No
Brewster (Village) Putnam No
Carmel (Town) Putnam No
Cold Spring (Village) Putnam Yes
Kent (Town) Putnam No
Nelsonville (Village) Putnam No
Patterson (Town) Putnam No
Philipstown (Town) Putnam No
Putnam Valley (Town) Putnam No
Southeast (Town) Putnam No
Berlin (Town) Rensselaer No
Brunswick (Town) Rensselaer No data
Castleton-on-Hudson (Village) Rensselaer Yes
East Greenbush (Town) Rensselaer Yes
East Nassau (Village) Rensselaer Yes
Grafton (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Hoosick (Town) Rensselaer No
Hoosick Falls (Village) Rensselaer Yes
Nassau (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Nassau (Village) Rensselaer Yes
North Greenbush (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Petersburgh (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Pittstown (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Poestenkill (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Rensselaer (City) Rensselaer No data
Sand Lake (Town) Rensselaer No
Schaghticoke (Town) Rensselaer No data
Schaghticoke (Village) Rensselaer No data
Schodack (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Stephentown (Town) Rensselaer Yes
Troy (City) Rensselaer Yes
Valley Falls (Village) Rensselaer No
Airmont (Village) Rockland Yes
Chestnut Ridge (Village) Rockland Yes
Clarkstown (Town) Rockland No
Grand View-on-Hudson (Village) Rockland No
Haverstraw (Town) Rockland No data
Haverstraw (Village) Rockland Yes
Hillburn (Village) Rockland No data
Kaser (Village) Rockland No data
Montebello (Village) Rockland No data
New Hempstead (Village) Rockland No
New Square (Village) Rockland No
Nyack (Village)  Rockland No data
Orangetown (Town) Rockland No
Piermont (Village) Rockland Yes
Pomona (Village)  Rockland No
Ramapo (Town) Rockland No
Sloatsburg (Village) Rockland No
South Nyack (Village) Rockland No data
Spring Valley (Village) Rockland No data
Stony Point (Town) Rockland No
Suffern (Village) Rockland No
Upper Nyack (Village) Rockland No data
Wesley Hills (Village) Rockland Yes
West Haverstraw (Village) Rockland No
Ballston (Town) Saratoga Yes
Ballston Spa (Village)  Saratoga Yes
Charlton (Town) Saratoga No
Clifton Park (Town) Saratoga No
Corinth (Town) Saratoga Yes
Corinth (Village) Saratoga Yes
Day (Town) Saratoga No
Edinburg (Town) Saratoga No data
Galway (Town) Saratoga No
Galway (Village) Saratoga No
Greenfield (Town) Saratoga No data
Hadley (Town) Saratoga Yes
Halfmoon (Town) Saratoga No data
Malta (Town) Saratoga No
Mechanicville (City) Saratoga No data
Milton (Town) Saratoga No data
Moreau (Town) Saratoga No
Northumberland (Town) Saratoga No
Providence (Town) Saratoga No
Round Lake (Village) Saratoga Yes
Saratoga (Town) Saratoga No data
Saratoga Springs (City) Saratoga Yes
Schuylerville (Village) Saratoga Yes
South Glens Falls (Village) Saratoga No data
Stillwater (Town) Saratoga No data
Stillwater (Village) Saratoga Yes
Victory (Village) Saratoga No
Waterford (Town) Saratoga Yes
Waterford (Village) Saratoga No
Wilton (Town) Saratoga No
Delanson (Village) Schenectady No data
Duanesburg (Town) Schenectady Yes
Glenville (Town) Schenectady No
Niskayuna (Town) Schenectady No
Princetown (Town) Schenectady No data
Rotterdam (Town) Schenectady Yes
Schenectady (City) Schenectady Yes
Scotia (Village) Schenectady Yes
Blenheim (Town) Schoharie Yes
Broome (Town) Schoharie No data
Carlisle (Town) Schoharie No data
Cobleskill (Town) Schoharie Yes
Cobleskill (Village) Schoharie Yes
Conesville (Town) Schoharie Yes
Esperance (Town) Schoharie Yes
Esperance (Village) Schoharie Yes
Fulton (Town) Schoharie No
Gilboa (Town) Schoharie Yes
Jefferson (Town) Schoharie No
Middleburgh (Town) Schoharie Yes
Middleburgh (Village) Schoharie Yes
Richmondville (Town) Schoharie No
Richmondville (Village) Schoharie Yes
Schoharie (Town) Schoharie Yes
Schoharie (Village) Schoharie Yes
Seward (Town) Schoharie Yes
Sharon (Town) Schoharie No
Sharon Springs (Village) Schoharie No
Summit (Town) Schoharie No data
Wright (Town) Schoharie Yes
Burdett (Village) Schuyler No
Catharine (Town) Schuyler Yes
Cayuta (Town) Schuyler No data
Dix (Town) Schuyler Yes
Hector (Town) Schuyler No data
Montour (Town) Schuyler Yes
Montour Falls (Village) Schuyler No
Odessa (Village)  Schuyler No
Orange (Town) Schuyler No data
Reading (Town) Schuyler No data
Tyrone (Town) Schuyler No
Watkins Glen (Village) Schuyler Yes
Covert (Town) Seneca  No
Fayette (Town) Seneca  No
Interlaken (Village) Seneca  No data
Junius (Town) Seneca  Yes
Lodi (Town) Seneca  Yes
Lodi (Village) Seneca  Yes
Ovid (Town) Seneca  No
Ovid (Village) Seneca  No
Romulus (Town) Seneca  Yes
Seneca Falls (Town) Seneca  Yes
Tyre (Town) Seneca  No data
Varick (Town) Seneca  No
Waterloo (Town) Seneca  No data
Waterloo (Village) Seneca  No
Brasher (Town) St. Lawrence No
Canton (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Canton (Village) St. Lawrence Yes
Clare (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Clifton (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Colton (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
De Kalb (Town) St. Lawrence No
De Peyster (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Edwards (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Fine (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Fowler (Town) St. Lawrence No
Gouverneur (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Gouverneur (Village) St. Lawrence No data
Hammond (Town) St. Lawrence No
Hammond (Village) St. Lawrence No
Hermon (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Heuvelton (Village) St. Lawrence No
Hopkinton (Town) St. Lawrence No
Lawrence (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Lisbon (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Louisville (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Macomb (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Madrid (Town) St. Lawrence No
Massena (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Massena (Village) St. Lawrence Yes
Morristown (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Norfolk (Town) St. Lawrence No
Norwood (Village) St. Lawrence Yes
Ogdensburg (City) St. Lawrence Yes
Oswegatchie (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Parishville (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Piercefield (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Pierrepont (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Pitcairn (Town) St. Lawrence No
Potsdam (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Potsdam (Village) St. Lawrence Yes
Rensselaer Falls (Village) St. Lawrence Yes
Richville (Village) St. Lawrence No data
Rossie (Town) St. Lawrence No data
Russell (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Stockholm (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Waddington (Town) St. Lawrence Yes
Waddington (Village) St. Lawrence No data
Addison (Town) Steuben No
Addison (Village) Steuben No
Almond (Village)  Steuben No data
Arkport (Village) Steuben No
Avoca (Town) Steuben No
Avoca (Village) Steuben No
Bath (Town) Steuben No
Bath (Village) Steuben Yes
Bradford (Town) Steuben No data
Cameron (Town) Steuben No data
Campbell (Town) Steuben No
Canisteo (Town) Steuben No
Canisteo (Village) Steuben No
Caton (Town) Steuben No
Cohocton (Town) Steuben Yes
Cohocton (Village) Steuben Yes
Corning (City) Steuben Yes
Corning (Town) Steuben No
Dansville (Town) Steuben No
Erwin (Town) Steuben No
Fremont (Town) Steuben No
Greenwood (Town) Steuben No
Hammondsport (Village) Steuben No
Hartsville (Town) Steuben No
Hornby (Town) Steuben Yes
Hornell (City) Steuben No
Hornellsville (Town) Steuben No
Howard (Town) Steuben No
Jasper (Town) Steuben No
Lindley (Town) Steuben Yes
North Hornell (Village) Steuben No
Painted Post (Village) Steuben No data
Prattsburgh (Town) Steuben No data
Pulteney (Town) Steuben Yes
Rathbone (Town) Steuben Yes
Riverside (Village) Steuben No
Savona (Village) Steuben No data
South Corning (Village) Steuben No
Thurston (Town) Steuben No
Troupsburg (Town) Steuben No data
Tuscarora (Town) Steuben No
Urbana (Town) Steuben No
Wayland (Town) Steuben No data
Wayland (Village) Steuben No
Wayne (Town) Steuben No
West Union (Town) Steuben No data
Wheeler (Town) Steuben No
Woodhull (Town) Steuben No data
Amityville (Village) Suffolk No
Asharoken (Village) Suffolk No data
Babylon (Town) Suffolk Yes
Babylon (Village) Suffolk No
Belle Terre (Village) Suffolk No data
Bellport (Village) Suffolk No
Brightwaters (Village) Suffolk No
Brookhaven (Town) Suffolk Yes
Dering Harbor (Village) Suffolk No
East Hampton (Town) Suffolk No
East Hampton (Village) Suffolk No
Greenport (Village) Suffolk No
Head of the Harbor (Village) Suffolk Yes
Huntington (Town) Suffolk No
Huntington Bay (Village) Suffolk Yes
Islandia (Village) Suffolk No
Islip (Town) Suffolk No
Lake Grove (Village) Suffolk No data
Lindenhurst (Village) Suffolk No
Lloyd Harbor (Village) Suffolk No
Nissequogue (Village) Suffolk No
North Haven (Village) Suffolk Yes
Northport (Village) Suffolk No
Ocean Beach (Village) Suffolk No
Old Field (Village) Suffolk Yes
Patchogue (Village) Suffolk No
Poquott (Village) Suffolk No
Port Jefferson (Village) Suffolk No
Quogue (Village) Suffolk No
Riverhead (Town) Suffolk Yes
Sag Harbor (Village)  Suffolk No
Sagaponack (Village) Suffolk No
Saltaire (Village) Suffolk No
Shelter Island (Town) Suffolk No
Shoreham (Village) Suffolk No
Smithtown (Town) Suffolk No
Southampton (Town) Suffolk Yes
Southampton (Village) Suffolk No
Southold (Town) Suffolk No
Village of the Branch (Village) Suffolk No
West Hampton Dunes (Village) Suffolk No data
Westhampton Beach (Village) Suffolk No
Bethel (Town) Sullivan Yes
Bloomingburg (Village) Sullivan No
Callicoon (Town) Sullivan No
Cochecton (Town) Sullivan No
Delaware (Town) Sullivan Yes
Fallsburg (Town) Sullivan Yes
Forestburgh (Town) Sullivan No data
Fremont (Town) Sullivan No data
Highland (Town) Sullivan No
Jeffersonville (Village) Sullivan No data
Liberty (Town) Sullivan Yes
Liberty (Village) Sullivan No data
Lumberland (Town) Sullivan No
Mamakating (Town) Sullivan Yes
Monticello (Village) Sullivan Yes
Neversink (Town) Sullivan No
Rockland (Town) Sullivan Yes
Thompson (Town) Sullivan Yes
Tusten (Town) Sullivan No data
Woodridge (Village) Sullivan No data
Wurtsboro (Village) Sullivan Yes
Barton (Town) Tioga No
Berkshire (Town) Tioga Yes
Candor (Town) Tioga Yes
Candor (Village) Tioga Yes
Newark Valley (Town) Tioga No
Newark Valley (Village) Tioga Yes
Nichols (Town) Tioga Yes
Nichols (Village) Tioga No
Owego (Town) Tioga No
Owego (Village) Tioga Yes
Richford (Town) Tioga No
Spencer (Town) Tioga No
Spencer (Village) Tioga No
Tioga (Town) Tioga No
Waverly (Village) Tioga No
Caroline (Town) Tompkins No
Cayuga Heights (Village) Tompkins Yes
Danby (Town) Tompkins Yes
Dryden (Town) Tompkins Yes
Dryden (Village) Tompkins No
Enfield (Town) Tompkins Yes
Freeville (Village) Tompkins No
Groton (Town) Tompkins No
Groton (Village) Tompkins No
Ithaca (City) Tompkins Yes
Ithaca (Town) Tompkins Yes
Lansing (Town) Tompkins No
Lansing (Village) Tompkins Yes
Newfield (Town) Tompkins Yes
Trumansburg (Village) Tompkins Yes
Ulysses (Town) Tompkins Yes
Denning (Town) Ulster Yes
Ellenville (Village) Ulster Yes
Esopus (Town) Ulster No
Gardiner (Town) Ulster Yes
Hardenburgh (Town) Ulster No data
Hurley (Town) Ulster Yes
Kingston (City) Ulster Yes
Kingston (Town) Ulster Yes
Lloyd (Town) Ulster Yes
Marbletown (Town) Ulster Yes
Marlborough (Town) Ulster Yes
New Paltz (Town) Ulster Yes
New Paltz (Village) Ulster Yes
Olive (Town) Ulster Yes
Plattekill (Town) Ulster No
Rochester (Town) Ulster Yes
Rosendale (Town) Ulster Yes
Saugerties (Town) Ulster No
Saugerties (Village) Ulster Yes
Shandaken (Town) Ulster Yes
Shawangunk (Town) Ulster No
Ulster (Town) Ulster Yes
Wawarsing (Town) Ulster No
Woodstock (Town) Ulster Yes
Bolton (Town) Warren No
Chester (Town) Warren No
Glens Falls (City) Warren Yes
Hague (Town) Warren Yes
Horicon (Town) Warren No
Johnsburg (Town) Warren Yes
Lake George (Town) Warren No
Lake George (Village) Warren No
Lake Luzerne (Town) Warren No data
Queensbury (Town) Warren Yes
Stony Creek (Town) Warren No
Thurman (Town) Warren Yes
Warrensburg (Town) Warren Yes
Argyle (Town) Washington Yes
Argyle (Village) Washington No data
Cambridge (Town) Washington Yes
Cambridge (Village) Washington Yes
Dresden (Town) Washington No data
Easton (Town) Washington Yes
Fort Ann (Town) Washington Yes
Fort Ann (Village) Washington Yes
Fort Edward (Town) Washington Yes
Granville (Town) Washington No
Granville (Village) Washington Yes
Greenwich (Town) Washington No
Greenwich (Village) Washington Yes
Hampton (Town) Washington Yes
Hartford (Town) Washington Yes
Hebron (Town) Washington Yes
Hudson Falls (Village) Washington No data
Jackson (Town) Washington No data
Kingsbury (Town) Washington No
Putnam (Town) Washington Yes
Salem (Town) Washington Yes
White Creek (Town) Washington Yes
Whitehall (Town) Washington Yes
Whitehall (Village) Washington No data
Arcadia (Town) Wayne Yes
Butler (Town) Wayne Yes
Clyde (Village) Wayne Yes
Galen (Town) Wayne Yes
Huron (Town) Wayne Yes
Lyons (Town) Wayne Yes
Macedon (Town) Wayne Yes
Marion (Town) Wayne Yes
Newark (Village) Wayne Yes
Ontario (Town) Wayne Yes
Palmyra (Town) Wayne Yes
Palmyra (Village) Wayne Yes
Red Creek (Village) Wayne No
Rose (Town) Wayne Yes
Savannah (Town) Wayne Yes
Sodus (Town) Wayne Yes
Sodus (Village) Wayne Yes
Sodus Point (Village) Wayne Yes
Walworth (Town) Wayne No
Williamson (Town) Wayne Yes
Wolcott (Town) Wayne Yes
Wolcott (Village)  Wayne Yes
Ardsley (Village) Westchester No
Bedford (Town) Westchester No
Briarcliff Manor (Village) Westchester No
Bronxville (Village) Westchester No
Buchanan (Village) Westchester No
Cortlandt (Town) Westchester Yes
Croton-on-Hudson (Village) Westchester Yes
Dobbs Ferry (Village) Westchester No
Eastchester (Town) Westchester No
Elmsford (Village) Westchester No
Greenburgh (Town) Westchester Yes
Harrison (Town) Westchester No
Harrison (Village) Westchester No
Hastings-on-Hudson (Village) Westchester Yes
Irvington (Village) Westchester No
Larchmont (Village) Westchester No
Lewisboro (Town) Westchester No
Mamaroneck (Town) Westchester No
Mamaroneck (Village)  Westchester No
Mount Kisco (Town) Westchester No
Mount Kisco (Village) Westchester No
Mount Pleasant (Town) Westchester No
Mount Vernon (City) Westchester Yes
New Castle (Town) Westchester No
New Rochelle (City) Westchester Yes
North Castle (Town) Westchester No
North Salem (Town) Westchester No
Ossining (Town) Westchester Yes
Ossining (Village) Westchester Yes
Peekskill (City) Westchester Yes
Pelham (Town) Westchester No data
Pelham (Village) Westchester No
Pelham Manor (Village) Westchester No
Pleasantville (Village) Westchester No
Port Chester (Village) Westchester No
Pound Ridge (Town) Westchester Yes
Rye (City) Westchester No
Rye (Town) Westchester Yes
Rye Brook (Village) Westchester No
Scarsdale (Town) Westchester No
Scarsdale (Village) Westchester No
Sleepy Hollow (Village) Westchester Yes
Somers (Town) Westchester No
Tarrytown (Village) Westchester Yes
Tuckahoe (Village) Westchester No
White Plains (City) Westchester Yes
Yonkers (City) Westchester Yes
Yorktown (Town) Westchester No
Arcade (Town) Wyoming Yes
Arcade (Village) Wyoming Yes
Attica (Town) Wyoming No
Attica (Village) Wyoming Yes
Bennington (Town) Wyoming No
Castile (Town) Wyoming No
Castile (Village) Wyoming No
Covington (Town) Wyoming No
Eagle (Town) Wyoming Yes
Gainesville (Town) Wyoming No
Gainesville (Village) Wyoming No
Genesee Falls (Town) Wyoming Yes
Java (Town) Wyoming Yes
Middlebury (Town) Wyoming No
Orangeville (Town) Wyoming No
Perry (Town) Wyoming No
Perry (Village)  Wyoming No
Pike (Town) Wyoming No
Sheldon (Town) Wyoming Yes
Silver Springs (Village) Wyoming No
Warsaw (Town) Wyoming No
Warsaw (Village) Wyoming Yes
Wethersfield (Town) Wyoming No
Wyoming (Village) Wyoming No data
Barrington (Town) Yates Yes
Benton (Town) Yates No
Dresden (Village) Yates No
Dundee (Village) Yates Yes
Italy (Town) Yates Yes
Jerusalem (Town) Yates No
Middlesex (Town) Yates No
Milo (Town) Yates Yes
Penn Yan (Village)  Yates Yes
Potter (Town) Yates No data
Starkey (Town) Yates Yes
Torrey (Town) Yates Yes

Unlike the retail sector, New York municipalities can’t opt out of cannabis cultivation and manufacturing by licensed businesses.

Christopher Anderson, director of research and programming for the Association of Towns of the State of New York, believes some communities will “opt back in when they see real-world examples of successful retail outlets” and business proposals are brought before them.

“If you’re in the middle of Oneida County, up in the hinterlands, there’s no pressing need to opt in – you can opt out, take your time and then only worry about the matter, or consider the matter, when you have a proposal in front of you,” Anderson said.

Municipalities might also rethink opt-outs “once participating municipalities begin seeing tax revenue,” Beacon Securities analysts Doug Cooper, Russell Stanley and Christopher Santos predicted in a Jan. 4 note to clients.

“Revenue generation is always on town officials’ concerns,” noted the Association of Towns’ Anderson.

“But I think they also have issues with public perception and fear, basically – it’s an unknown.”

Next steps in New York

The chair of New York’s Cannabis Control Board, which wasn’t fully established until late last year, recently acknowledged that recreational retailers won’t be licensed to open until 2023.

Regulations for adult-use cannabis retailers have yet to be issued.

“Now that the board is constituted, we are examining the critical elements of the timeline, including our need for meaningful public engagement, the interplay with equity goals, and the necessity of establishing a stable market,” New York Office of Cannabis Management (OCM) spokesman Freeman Klopott said in a statement to MJBizDaily.

“We expect to release adult-use regulations in the first quarter of this year.”

The Rockefeller Institute’s Trela said opt-in municipalities can pass zoning regulations to control cannabis businesses locations – a process that has “already started” – as well as approve time, place, and manner restrictions.

The 10 companies currently licensed to produce and sell medical cannabis in New York are already allowed up to four dispensaries, plus another four under the new adult-use law, noted Toronto-based Beacon Securities, with three of the dispensaries permitted to serve the adult-use market.

One of those existing medical operators, Chicago-based Cresco Labs, currently has dispensaries in Brooklyn, Huntington Station, Bardonia and New Hartford.

Bardonia and Huntington Station have opted out of recreational retail, at least for now.

Those locations will continue as medical dispensaries “for the time being,” said John Sullivan, Cresco’s executive vice president of public affairs.

“We will continue to talk to those towns about what their thoughts are,” he said.

“I don’t think any doors are shut yet. All these towns are still looking at this.

“The only way to preserve being able to opt out … with the (regulations) not out yet, was to opt out before the end of the year.”

In some other Cresco markets, added company spokesperson Jason Erkes, communities have opted out at first, then changed their minds.

“And then the next time around, they’re raising their hand, saying, ‘Hey, wait a minute, we want new firetrucks, we want new computers for the school,’ … and then they’re fighting in that second round to get stores in their community.”

Making inroads with municipalities

Some New York municipalities are creating processes to vet potential cannabis businesses, according to Rob DiPisa, co-chair of the marijuana law group at Cole Schotz and a partner in the firm’s real estate practice.

DiPisa, who represents landlords and cannabis companies in New York, offered this advice for cannabis businesses approaching opt-in towns:

“I think, first and foremost, you need to approach these towns not (with the attitude of), ‘What can the town do for us,’ but you really need to give them a presentation as to what you are going to bring to the town, what this business is going to mean for the town.”

“What kind of programs are you going to help the town with?” he continued.

“Are you going to raise money for charities? It’s just like any other business going in these municipalities.

“You want to show them that you’re going to be a partner, you’re going to be part of the community, and that you are going to listen to the concerns of the town.”

When approaching opt-out towns, Anderson of the Association of Towns advises contacting members of a town board directly to set up a conversation before making a more formal case at a board meeting.

“But certainly, talk to the town officials first – you may be the first person to talk to them about the issue,” he said.

“And what they may need is more information.

“And you also may find that they’re just not interested at all, obviously.”

Cole Schotz’s DiPisa said he advises clients against trying to launch a business in an opt-out municipality.

“If they really don’t want you there, that municipality is going to fight you every step of the way, and this business is hard enough as it is,” he said.

However, he added, opportunities might exist in opt-out municipalities that have decided to opt back in, “and you’re one of the first groups that is in discussions with them right before, or while they’re in the process of opting back in.”

Now that everyone knows which municipalities have proactively opted in, DiPisa said, applicants will be busy competing to enter those communities.

“So you’ve got to approach it like a partnership, you have to be open to change,” he said.

“You can’t just walk into these towns and think that you are going to do whatever you want, without any kind of input or collaboration, because it’s just not going to work.”

Solomon Israel can be reached at

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After One Year As President, Biden’s Marijuana Promises Remain Unfulfilled




Thursday marks the end of President Joe Biden’s first year in office—and, by and large, his campaign promises on marijuana policy have so far gone unfilled. And while certain federal agencies have taken some positive reform steps, the administration managed to stir controversy over some outwardly hostile actions with respect to cannabis policy.

Contrary to Biden’s campaign pledges, cannabis has not been federally decriminalized, people remain in federal prison over non-violent marijuana offenses and the plant has yet to be rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act. Of the cannabis promises that Biden made while running for president, just one has been met so far: the government has continued to let states implement marijuana reform mostly without federal intervention, though ongoing lack of clarity from the administration has caused continuing complications for the industry and consumers.

In one of the more notable positive developments to come out of the Oval Office, however, Biden did sign an infrastructure bill last year that contains language meant to help promote marijuana research.

While there were numerous successes on the reform front in 2021 those mostly came at the state level, and advocates feel disappointed by the overall White House inaction—especially considering that it was promised to voters ahead of the 2020 election.

It’s not just that there were no meaningful reform actions in Biden’s first year, either. It’s that some of the few actions he did take on marijuana—proposing in his budget to keep blocking Washington, D.C. from legalizing cannabis sales and punishing White House staff who were honest about past marijuana use—were setbacks in the movement.

Biden himself hasn’t made a substantive public comment about cannabis policy since entering the Oval Office, beside making a quick, dismissive comment to a reporter who asked about clemency for current prisoners. Vice President Kamala Harris, for her part, said last year that the Biden administration isn’t focused on following through on its marijuana reform pledges because it’s too overwhelmed with responding to the coronavirus pandemic.

“The Biden Administration’s failure to live up to campaign statements and, in the case of including a rider preventing D.C. from regulating cannabis in his budget proposal, even backsliding on cannabis is extremely disappointing,” Morgan Fox, the newly installed political director of NORML, told Marijuana Moment. “This inaction on modest cannabis policy reforms over the past year is inexcusable and is a betrayal of the people that put the president in office.”

“The president has an opportunity with cannabis to show initiative and leadership on an issue that enjoys broad bipartisan support,” he said. “Continued inaction on this issue will have negative consequences for his party this year and in 2024.”

Here’s a rundown of what has happened with marijuana and broader drug policy under the Biden administration in its first year: 

Promise Made, Promises Not Kept

When he was running for president, Biden frustrated advocates by declining to embrace broad marijuana legalization like most of his Democratic primary opponents did at the time. But they were at least encouraged that he voiced support for more modest reforms like federal decriminalization, legalizing medical cannabis, rescheduling and expungements.

“We should decriminalize marijuana,” he said during a town hall event in October 2020, adding, “I don’t believe anybody should be going to jail for drug use.”

He reiterated the pledge in numerous interviews, debates and tweets, as well as in a campaign ad.

But despite having the authority to unilaterally issue a mass pardon for people with federal cannabis convictions—as advocates and lawmakers have repeatedly pressed him to do—Biden has only ceremonially pardoned turkeys around Thanksgiving since taking office.

Following that ceremony, The New York Post’s Steven Nelson pressed the president on cannabis clemency, asking him if there were plans to pardon “any people in addition to turkeys.” Biden jokingly replied, “you need a pardon?” and didn’t respond to a follow-up question about marijuana prisoners.

The White House has been asked about the issue several times now, but while Press Secretary Jen Psaki recently said that the president has “every intention of using his clemency power” and is “looking at” relief for non-violent drug offenders, no meaningful action has been taken.

While on the campaign trail, Biden also came out in favor of moving marijuana from Schedule I to II under the federal Controlled Substances Act—an incremental move that wouldn’t legalize the plant but could make it easier for researchers to study its risks and benefits.

Psaki said in April that Biden’s clemency promise for people with federal marijuana convictions and said that process would start with modestly rescheduling cannabis. But even if rescheduling could help people with cannabis records (experts say it would not), the administration has so far taken no real steps to accomplish that reform.

While experts say it may not be possible for a president to unilaterally remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act, he could encourage agencies like the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Justice Department to initiate the rescheduling process.

The lack of clemency action is especially disappointing to advocates who have been lobbying the White House to do something on this issue.

Biden has received about a dozen letters from lawmakers, advocates, celebrities and people impacted by criminalization to do something about the people who remain behind federal bars over cannabis. After months of inaction, some members of Congress like Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) have even sent follow-up letters demanding a response.

A recently published Congressional Research Service (CRS) report affirmed that the president has it within his power to grant mass pardons for cannabis offenses. It also said that the administration can move to federally legalize cannabis without waiting for lawmakers to act.

To his credit, Biden has so far kept his campaign pledge to continue to let states legalize and regulate marijuana without federal intervention. But advocates had hoped that he would at least push for the reinstatement of Obama-era Justice Department guidance to prosecutors that generally urged them not to interfere with state laws but which President Donald Trump’s first attorney general rescinded.

Without that guidance or any other concrete reform steps, banking challenges and risks remain in the cannabis industry, marijuana businesses are unable to receive tax credits like other legal industries and other hardships resulting from the federal-state policy conflict remain intact for consumers and patients. In effect, Biden has maintained the status quo of uncertainty that has been in place during the Trump administration and last half of the Obama administration.

Reform Setbacks

Early in 2021, the Biden administration came under fire after it was reported that it had terminated or otherwise punished dozens of staffers who admitted to prior marijuana use as part of their background check process.

Psaki previously attempted to minimize the fallout, without much success, and her office also stressed that nobody was fired for “marijuana usage from years ago,” nor has anyone been terminated “due to casual or infrequent use during the prior 12 months.”  However, she’s consistently declined to speak to the extent to which staff have been suspended or placed in a remote work program because they were honest about their history with marijuana on the federal background check form.

As part of his fiscal year 2022 budget proposal, Biden included a rider that would continue to block Washington, D.C. from using its own tax dollars to legalize adult-use marijuana sales, declining to recommend that existing language barring such activity be eliminated. Democratic lawmakers have moved forward with removing that rider anyways

After receiving a letter from a congresswoman concerning executive discretion for cannabis consumers, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) said it is required to continue denying federally assisted housing to people who use marijuana, even if they’re acting in compliance with state law.

The federal government has generally taken a hands-off approach to marijuana enforcement in states that have chosen to legalize the plant, but it was reported late last year that a federal agency raided a small, home cannabis garden of a medical cannabis patient living on Indian territory in New Mexico. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) raid occurred in September.

Biden’s Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) said last year that it continues to oppose a bill that would require it to conduct clinical trials into the therapeutic potential of marijuana for military veterans. A House committee advanced the legislation in any case. A VA representative told lawmakers that the department is “already dedicating resources and research expertise to study the effects of cannabis on conditions affecting veterans.”

“President Biden has made little progress in supporting drug reform laws at the federal level and in some instances, has even taken us further back,” Maritza Perez, director of national affairs at the Drug Policy Alliance, told Marijuana Moment.

On broader drug issues, she added that the administration backed a broad scheduling policy for fentanyl-related substances that “will have a devastating impact on the criminal legal system and set a horrific precedent for drug scheduling moving forward.”

“Moreover, President Biden has failed to embrace marijuana legalization even though he claims to support decriminalization of the substance,” Perez said. “As long as marijuana remains on the CSA, people will continue to be policed, arrested, and imprisoned for marijuana activity. This is deeply problematic particularly because this president made bold promises around criminal justice reform and racial justice for which he has not delivered.”

Federal Actions On Marijuana

There were some positive developments in drug policy reform that came out of federal agencies and the White House last year.

Biden signed a massive infrastructure bill in November that includes provisions aimed at allowing researchers to study the actual marijuana that consumers are purchasing from state-legal dispensaries instead of having to use only government-grown cannabis. The legislation also encourages states that have enacted legalization laws to educate people about impaired driving.

In his 2022 budget, Biden proposed continuing a spending bill provision that’s been annually renewed by Congress since 2014 to prevent the use of Justice Department funds to interfere in state medical cannabis programs. That was the first time a president has moved to keep that rider.

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) under Biden has also moved on several occasions to greatly increase legal production quotas for illegal Schedule I drugs like psilocybin, MDMA and DMT.

And several years after first announcing that it would take steps to break the federal marijuana manufacturing monopoly for research, it has finally issued new licenses outside of the University of Mississippi.

Meanwhile, DEA has given hemp businesses that sell delta-8 THC products a boost, with representatives making comments recently signaling that, at the federal level at least, it’s not a controlled substance at this time.

Employment policies related to marijuana have also been shifting within federal agencies under Biden, despite the controversy of his administration’s cannabis-related firings.

The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) said in a memo distributed to agencies last year that admitting to past marijuana use should not automatically disqualify people from being employed in the federal government.

More recently, the director of national intelligence (DNI) said federal employers shouldn’t outright reject security clearance applicants over past use and should use discretion when it comes to those with cannabis investments in their stock portfolios.

FBI quietly updated its hiring policies last year to make it so candidates are only automatically disqualified from joining the agency if they admit to having used marijuana within one year of applying. However, it later revised the policy again to add a stipulation that applicants are ineligible if they’ve used cannabis more than 24 times after turning 18.

In September, The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposed a change to the federal drug scheduling system that it hopes will streamline research into Schedule I controlled substances including marijuana and psychedelics such as psilocybin. DEA and NIDA later said that they supports the plan.

While the Biden administration has yet to take a position on policy proposals to authorize safe consumption facilities and a related court challenge against them that are carried over from the Trump administration, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) put out a pair of requests for applications last month for an effort that will provide funding for efforts to investigate how that and other harm reduction policies could help address the drug crisis.

After requesting permission from the White House to conduct the survey of about 20,000 hemp farmers, The U.S.Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service announced in August that the forms are being finalized to be filled out via mail or online.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), meanwhile, still hasn’t gotten around to issuing regulations for hemp-derived cannabidiol products, but it announced last year that it plans to use Reddit and other “novel” data sources to gain a better understanding of public health issues surrounding use of CBD and other “emerging” cannabis derivatives like delta-8 THC.

Federal, state and local officials convened for a national conference this month where members discussed and advanced proposals to establish standards for marijuana products that could later be formally adopted into a federal handbook overseen by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

While Biden hasn’t granted mass clemency for people with marijuana convictions, his administration did take a first step toward granting presidential relief to hundreds of people on home confinement for federal drug convictions last year, with the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) asking eligible individuals to get the process started by filing out clemency applications.

Biden Nominees On Drug Policy

Several of Biden’s pick to lead key agencies have unique drug policy backgrounds. And some of those choices who’ve since been confirmed have been applauded by advocates.

Activists initially weren’t sure what to make of Attorney General Merrick Garland when he was nominated because of his limited record, but they were relieved during his confirmation proceedings to hear that he wasn’t preparing a crackdown on legal cannabis states.

While he’s yet to reinstitute the Obama era guidance offering some level of protection for states that have legalized, he has said on several occasions that DOJ resources shouldn’t be spent going after people operating in compliance with state cannabis laws.

He also hasn’t acted on calls from lawmakers to use his own authority to swiftly end federal cannabis prohibition.

ONDCP Director Rahul Gupta worked as a consultant to Holistic Industries, a multi-state cannabis operator, for nine months in 2020. Prior to his confirmation, Gupta had already caught the attention of reform advocates given his record overseeing the implementation of West Virginia’s medical marijuana program as state health commissioner and chair of a key advisory board. He’s also publicly recognized both the therapeutic and economic potential of cannabis reform.

It was another relief to advocates that the president didn’t pick former Rep. Patrick Kennedy (D-RI), a cofounder of anti-legalization organization Smart Approaches To Marijuana (SAM), for the drug czar job, even after he personally lobbied for the nomination.

Associate Attorney General Vanita Gupta (no relation to Rahul) was also repeatedly pressed on her drug policy views during her confirmation process, particularly where she stands on broad decriminalization. Advocates expressed frustration that she denied having endorsed decriminalization during the hearings despite having done so in past roles at reform organizations.

Former California Attorney General Xavier Becerra was picked to lead HHS, and it was welcome news for advocates because he has a considerable record supporting cannabis reform and working to protect California’s legal program from federal interference.

For example, Becerra was one of 21 state attorneys general who sent a letter to congressional leaders in 2019 expressing support for a bipartisan bill to protect state-legal cannabis programs against federal intervention.

In October, Becerra also signaled that the administration would not block the establishment safe injection sites where people could use illicit drugs in a medically supervised environment as a means of curtailing the overdose epidemic—but it will ultimately be up to the Justice Department to follow through.

As California’s attorney general, Becerra joined counterparts from other states in signing onto an amicus brief supporting a group’s case to set up a harm reduction center. After making supportive remarks about the facilities as HHS secretary, however, a department spokesperson clarified that “HHS does not have a position on supervised consumption sites.”

Biden’s nominee for FDA commissioner has acknowledged the potential medical benefits of marijuana. Robert Califf, who previously served a short stint as the FDA head under the Obama administration, also said that he actually prescribed a cannabinoid drug as a doctor. He’s yet to be confirmed, however.

Tom Vilsack, Biden’s nominee to run USDA who has since been confirmed, gave final approval to a federal rule laying out regulations for the hemp industry in March 2021. He’s widely considered an ally of the hemp industry.

The head of DEA who Biden selected previously described a New Jersey medical marijuana bill as “workable” while serving at the state’s attorney general. Although the former top state prosecutor, Anne Milgram, doesn’t appear to have publicly detailed her personal views on cannabis reform, the limited comments she made over a decade ago signal that, at the very least, she’s open to allowing states to enact their own marijuana policies despite federal prohibition.

Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen recently said that that freeing up banks to work with state-legal marijuana businesses would “of course” make the Internal Revenue Service’s (IRS) job of collecting taxes easier. Rep. Ed Perlmutter (D-CO) said this month that he’s confident that Biden would support his cannabis banking bill if it arrived on his desk in part because of the conversations he’s had with Yellen about the issue.

Adewale Adeyemo, who Biden picked for the role of Treasury deputy secretary, said in February 2021 that he would look into the possibility of updating 2014 Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) guidance on marijuana banking.

Isabel Guzman, who was picked and confirmed to lead the federal Small Business Administration (SBA), told senators last year that she would examine marijuana businesses’ inability to receive aid that is available to companies in other industries. She also promised last year to “explore” ways the agency could change its policy on prohibiting people with certain criminal convictions—including over marijuana—from accessing federal business loans and other services.

It’s also worth noting that the head of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Nora Volkow, has repeatedly made comments on the need for a drug decriminalization model while Biden has been in office, though her tenure predates this presidency.

What To Expect From Biden In 2022

Advocates aren’t necessarily holding their breath for a 2022 marijuana reform push from the White House, but they certainly plan to continue to put pressure on the Biden administration in the new year and see opportunities for at least incremental reform.

With respect to federal agencies and their various heads, it seems the infrastructure is in place to continue to advance incremental policy changes that are less punitive and more science-centered with respect to cannabis, psychedelics and broader drug reform.

Toi Hutchinson, former senior advisor on cannabis to Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker (D) and current CEO and president of the Marijuana Policy Project, told Marijuana Moment that it is unfortunate that states have so far lacked “guidance or participation from the federal government” on the cannabis reform front.

“States are left to develop and impose their own testing, health and safety rules. Banks are afraid of violating criminal law by serving licensed operators,” she said. “Individuals in one state compete for state licenses to produce and sell cannabis on an industrial scale, where they face arrest, prosecution, and jail in a neighboring state to even possess a single gram of the same substance.”

“Democrats, including President Biden when he was on the campaign trail, have been clear in their support for cannabis reform, and voters listened,” she said. “Whether it’s full legalization in 2022, or simply the ability for cannabis businesses to get a bank or get tax relief, we expect to see cannabis reform because that is exactly what we were told.”

New York Will Generate More Than $1.25 Billion In Marijuana Revenue Over Next Six Years, Governor’s Budget Estimates

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2022 brings new markets, opportunities for California marijuana firms




More than a dozen California cities are opening new recreational cannabis licensing opportunities this year, either by embracing the legal marijuana industry for the first time or by increasing the number of available business permits.

Several other cities, meanwhile, are laying the groundwork for new markets down the road by drafting and/or developing cannabis ordinances.

The rollout of new adult-use markets and business opportunities come as cities across the state are eager to bring in additional tax revenue after the pandemic and other factors depleted public coffers.

The ongoing shift is a welcome sign for the state’s struggling marijuana sector, which remains forbidden in the vast majority of California cities and, at the same time, must compete against a thriving illicit market.

Map showing where California cities are looking to expand marijuana markets“Expanding doors is critical if we expect the legal cannabis market to survive,” said Harry Kazazian, chair and CEO of 22Red, a marijuana brand based in Pasadena.

“Communities that shut out legal retail stores will be serviced by the underground market.”

According to Hirsh Jain, founder of Los Angeles-based cannabis consultancy Ananda Strategy, only 115 of the state’s 482 cities, or roughly 24%, have a licensed dispensary open today.

But that is starting to change.

Retail expansion across the state

The retail expansion is far and wide, from urban centers in San Diego and San Jose to small towns such as Madera in the Central Valley and Oxnard along the Southern California coast.

Madera, about 25 miles north of Fresno, is issuing its first eight retail licenses, including two designated for social equity applicants.

The agricultural town, which hadn’t disclosed application timelines as of press time, also is offering unlimited permits for vertically integrated operators, an emerging shift among city and county governments in California.

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Hemet, a midsized town in Riverside County that’s struggled to recover from the Great Recession of 2007-09, has foregone licensing caps altogether and is instead relying on zoning allowances to dictate the number of retail outlets.

“This represents cities moving away from this limited-license framework,” Jain said.

Elliot Lewis, CEO of Long Beach-based Catalyst Cannabis Co., welcomes the competition.

In October, the retailer was approved for a storefront in neighboring East Hemet, in unincorporated Riverside County.

“Without good, legal, safe access, the industry is drowning,” said Lewis, who expects to open the location in March. “It needs retail outlets.”

National City, bordering San Diego to the south, approved several licenses in November.

Applicants in National City may apply for retail, cultivation, distribution, manufacturing and transportation permits, ushering in a new era of commercial activity.

Retail applicants are required to operate at least one other marijuana business on the property, according to the ordinance, and must limit the retail portion to no more than 40% of square footage.

National City plans to start accepting applications this quarter, with a few notable caveats: Officials plan to favor local ownership, and at least one of the six licenses will be set aside for a consumption lounge operator.

Second thoughts

San Diego, an underserved market considering its large population, is among several California cities with established commercial cannabis programs looking to expand.

The state’s second-largest city, with nearly 1.4 million residents, appears poised to lift several of its zoning restrictions, including narrowing a 1,000-foot buffer between marijuana businesses and parks, libraries, places of worship and playgrounds.

The constraints, critics contend, are a major reason why the city has opened only 25 dispensaries, despite approving 36 in 2014.

If those restrictions are eased, which could come within the next month or so, retail licenses could expand nearly 40%, according to The San Diego Union Tribune.

Those municipalities looking to expand existing programs also include the Silicon Valley hub of San Jose.

The Northern California city of a million residents has only 16 dispensaries.

The San Jose City Council is weighing a policy overhaul to boost retail and delivery locations to 42 while eliminating several zoning restrictions and easing others.

The tech mecca is also looking to create new business opportunities for social equity applicants.

Tracy, about 55 miles northeast of San Jose, plans to issue seven retail permits for a total of 11 after its City Council approved an expansion in November.

Only 10 applicants have advanced to the final-review stage, however, with four on the verge of approval.

The process has been lengthy. Tracy hasn’t accepted applications since October 2020 but stated on its website it might consider reopening an application window in “late 2022 or early 2023.”

Merced started accepting applications Jan. 10 for an additional storefront license, bringing the Central Valley town’s total to five.

The deadline to apply is Jan. 31.

Hanford, about 35 miles south of Fresno, is adding one retail location.

According to the city’s website, the cap of two stores and two non-storefront retailers has been met.

The city also is accepting applications for cultivation, manufacturing, lab testing, distribution and micro-business permits – all uncapped – on a continuous basis.

Oxnard, located along the coast in Ventura County, issued six additional retail licenses last year with three dedicated to local equity applicants.

The agricultural town – perhaps best known for hosting the Dallas Cowboys’ summer training camp, which draws thousands of fans every year – is expected to have 16 dispensaries open by year’s end.

Looking ahead, several other cities are in the process of drafting and/or developing cannabis ordinances, including Monterey, Riverside, Lodi, Delano and Visalia.

Numbers don’t add up

The lack of retail outlets, particularly compared to the number of licensed cultivators, has depressed California’s marijuana economy, according to Tom Adams, CEO and principal analyst of L.A. research firm, Global Go Analytics.

“The struggles the California legal cannabis market is undergoing, particularly the meltdown in wholesale flower prices in 2021, is largely due to the fact that local jurisdictions have licensed 10 times as many cultivation operations as retail storefronts – some 7,500 versus about 750,” he said.

Most agricultural products (think almonds or oranges) have the opposite ratio, in which retailers outnumber suppliers by a wide margin.

“Certainly, the number of cultivators is going to shrink from attrition,” Adams said, “but hopefully all these local moves to allow more storefronts also balance out the supply chain in a positive direction.”

Chris Casacchia can be reached at

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High Life

MS House approves medical cannabis bill (Newsletter: January 20, 2022)






1 day ago


January 19, 2022

Bipartisan lawmakers push DEA on medical psychedelic access; Austin puts marijuana decrim on ballot; KS psilocybin bill; FBI cannabis license scrutiny

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A bipartisan group of members of Congress led by Rep. Earl Blumenauer (D-OR) sent a letter demanding that the Drug Enforcement Administration allow terminally ill patients to use psilocybin as an investigational treatment without the fear of federal prosecution.

Louisiana Democratic U.S. Senate candidate Gary Chambers smoked a marijuana blunt in a new campaign ad that focuses on the harms of criminalization. He says he’ll back cannabis expungements and banking bills if elected to Congress.

The Austin, Texas City Council passed an ordinance referring a marijuana decriminalization proposal to the May ballot. Advocates had wanted lawmakers to adopt the measure on their own, but are confident it’ll be approved by voters.

A Kansas representative filed a bill to legalize possession and home cultivation of psilocybin.

Newly surfaced testimony suggests Federal Bureau of Investigation scrutiny of Missouri’s medical marijuana licensing process may be ongoing, with a businessman saying he talked about the governor, a mayor and other officials with federal agents.


The Department of Defense Consolidated Adjudications Facility is taking a more aggressive stance in some adjudications of marijuana-related security clearance denials.

The U.S. attorney for Vermont said there are “potential matters involving marijuana that we would potentially consider prosecuting” but “as a general matter, that is not an area that’s on the top of our priority list.”

Staff for Rep. Brian Mast (R-FL) defended his purchase of stock in Tilray, Inc. just days before the House voted to approve a federal marijuana legalization bill.

Rep. Dave Joyce (R-OH) tweeted, “[email protected] gets it. Glad to have my fellow #Cannabis Caucus Co-Chair as a cosponsor of my bipartisan #HOPEAct. By redressing the consequences of the War on Drugs and reigniting the American Dream, this important bill gives Congress the chance to #passprogress.”

Rep. Ayanna Pressley (D-MA) congratulated a Massachusetts cannabis regulator on her anniversary of taking the job.


New Jersey Gov. Phil Murphy (D) signed legislation to decriminalize syringes and otherwise expand access to syringe access programs.

Mississippi Gov. Tate Reeves (R) said a medical cannabis bill is getting “better” with each revision that comes out. Meanwhile, the agriculture and commerce commissioner said he is taking steps to prepare for his department’s role in implementing a medical marijuana law if one is enacted.

New Mexico Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) spoke about the job-creating and tax revenue-generating potential of the legal cannabis industry in her State of the State speech.

Florida Democratic gubernatorial candidate Nikki Fried, currently the agriculture commissioner, tweeted, “As governor, I’ll legalize marijuana.”

The Maine legislature’s Veterans and Legal Affairs Committee will consider bills on marijuana home delivery, edibles production and plant tracking on Wednesday.

A black Delaware representative who removed his name from a marijuana legalization bill last year after social equity provisions were stripped out says a new version of the legislation addresses his concerns and is ​​”the best one, the most complete bill that I’ve seen.”

Pennsylvania regulators readopted medical cannabis regulations.

Michigan’s top marijuana regulator said he thinks “we’re reaching a period of stabilization in the market.”

The Iowa Department of Human Rights’s Justice Advisory Board noted racial disparities in marijuana enforcement and said it will monitor legalization outcomes in other states.

A Massachusetts marijuana regulator authored an op-ed arguing for a crackdown on impaired driving.

Oklahoma regulators delayed the launch of a new medical cannabis licensing portal.

Arizona officials are accepting grant applications for funding for marijuana research.

Florida’s Medical Cannabis Advisory Committee will meet on Thursday.

Marijuana Moment is already tracking more than 1,000 cannabis, psychedelics and drug policy bills in state legislatures and Congress this year. Patreon supporters pledging at least $25/month get access to our interactive maps, charts and hearing calendar so they don’t miss any developments.

Learn more about our marijuana bill tracker and become a supporter on Patreon to get access.


The DeKalb County, Georgia Commission considered a proposal to end pre-employment drug screening for marijuana, but it was blocked from advancing.

Birmingham, Alabama’s mayor reacted to criticism of his local reform advocacy from a former lawmaker by tweeting, “I will not be lectured on the rights and wrongs of pardoning people for marijuana possession by Former State Sen. Phil Williams whose major ‘accomplishments’ include voting to lower unemployment benefits, protect racist monuments, and build more prisons.”


Thailand’s Food and Drug Administration is reportedly planning to propose removing marijuana from the list of controlled drugs on Wednesday.

The Bahamian minister of agriculture, marine resources and Family Island affairs said the Family Islands would be an ideal location to grow the cannabis industry.


A study concluded that “medicinal cannabis may increase [quality of life] for advanced [cholangiocarcinoma] patients.”

A study’s results “support potential synergy between psychedelics and meditation.”


The Pima County, Arizona Democratic Party called a Louisiana Democratic Senate candidate’s advertisement in which he smokes marijuana on camera an “important campaign ad.”


MedMen’s former CEO spoke about his departure from the company in his first interview since leaving.

Columbia Care Inc. has a new CFO.

A New York judge began a hearing on whether a lawsuit against Acreage Holdings and other defendants over a disputed medical cannabis license can proceed.

Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk tweeted that he and Mel Brooks were “both born 69 days after 4/20.”


Wiz Khalifa is partnering with Cresco Labs on a distribution deal for his Khalifa Kush cannabis brand in California.

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Photo courtesy of Chris Wallis // Side Pocket Images.

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